:: Green Infrastructure Resources and Publications :: Online Resources and Literature

Below are a variety of available online green infrastructure resources and literature, sorted by category. You will need Adobe Acrobat Reader, available as a free download here, to view some of the links on this page. You can also download this entire list of resources here.


Benedict, Mark A. and McMahon, Edward T. Green Infrastructure: Linking Landscapes and Communities. Washington, D.C., Island Press. 2006.

Benedict, Mark A. and McMahon, Edward T. Green Infrastructure: Smart Conservation for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C., Sprawl Watch Clearing House. May 2002. Online at http://www.sprawlwatch.org/greeninfrastructure.pdf

Dale, Virginia H., et al. Ecological Principles and Guidelines for Managing the Use of Land. Ecological Applications: Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 639–670. 2000.

Dale, Virginia H. and Haeuber, R.A. (editors). Applying Ecological Principles to Land Management. New York, Springer-Verlag. 2001.

Dale, Virginia H. and English, M.R. (editors). Tools to Aid Environmental Decision Making. New York, Springer-Verlag. 1999.

Dramstad, Wenche E., et al. Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Architecture and Land Use Planning. Washington D.C., Island Press. 1996.

Duerksen, Christopher and Snyder, Cara. Nature Friendly Communities, Habitat Protection, and Land Use Planning. Washington, D.C., Island Press. 2005.

Forman, R. T. T. Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 1995.

Fulton, William, Pendall, Rolf, Nguyen, Mai, and Harrison, Alicia. Who Sprawls Most? How Growth Patterns Differ Across the U.S., The Brookings Institution. July 2001.

Hellmund, Paul C. and Smith, Daniel S. Designing Greenways: Sustainable Landscapes for Nature and People. Washington, D.C., Island Press. 2006.

Johnson, Bart and Hill, Kristina (editors). Ecology and Design. Washington D.C., Island Press. 2001.

McHarg, Ian. Design with Nature. Falcon Press. 1969.

The Nature Conservancy. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Washington, D.C., The Nature Conservancy. 2000.

Trust for Public Land. Building Green Infrastructure: Land Conservation as a Watershed Protection Strategy. San Francisco, Trust for Public Land. 2000.

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McElfish, James M., Nature Friendly Ordinances. Washington, D.C., Environmental Law Institute. 2004.

Tree Conservation Ordinance: Fairfax County Virginia. Tree Ordinance and Amendments. Fairfax County. http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/dpwes/publications/pfm/treeconservation

Examples of urban forest management plans: Urban Forestry South Expo. Management Plans. http://www.urbanforestrysouth.org/resources/management-plans

Land and Water Planning

Green Infrastructure Center Planning and Tools Fact Sheets:

Environmental Law Institute. Planning for Biodiversity: Authorities in State Land Use Laws. Washington, D.C., Environmental Law Institute. 2003.

McElfish, James M. Nature Friendly Ordinances. Washington, D.C., Environmental Law Institute. 2004.

Nolon, John. Open Ground: Effective Local Strategies for Protecting Natural Resources. Washington, D.C., Environmental Law Institute. 2003.

Nolon, John. New Ground: The Advent of Local Environmental Law. Washington, D.C., Environmental Law Institute. 2003.

Riley, Ann L. Restoring Streams in Cities. Washington D.C., Island Press. 2001.

Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems: http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban

Southern Forest Research Station -- Source for Statistics on Southern Forests: www.srs.fs.usda.gov

National Biological Information Infrastructure: www.nbii.gov/portal/server.pt

National Wetlands Inventory: www.fws.gov/nwi


Crompton, John L., Love, Lisa L., Moore, Thomas A. An Empirical Study of the Role of Recreation, Parks and Open Space in Communities (Re)Location Decisions. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 37-58. Spring 1997.

Davis, Lynn. “Urban Forestry: Engineering Cities into Natural Systems”. Research Magazine, Winter 2004. http://www.research.vt.edu/resmag/2004resmag/forestry.html

Increased pavement longevity:
Center for Urban Forest Research. “Why Shade Streets? The Unexpected Benefits”. 2006. http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/programs/cufr/products/cufr_673_WhyShadeStreets_10-06.pdf


Akbari, H., Pomerantz, M., and Taha, H. Cool Surfaces and Shade Trees to Reduce Energy Use and Improve Air Quality in Urban Areas. Solar Energy, Vol. 70, No. 3. 2001.

BBC News.“Tree Lined Streets Cut Asthma”. May 2008.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7374078.stm

Georgia Forestry Commission. Tree Benefits: Environmental Benefits of Trees. http://www.gfc.state.ga.us/CommunityForests/TreeBenefits.cfm

Miller, Daphne. “Take A Hike and Call Me in the Morning”. Washington Post. November 17, 2009.

Sullivan, W. C. and, F. E Kuo. “Do Trees Strengthen Urban Communities, Reduce Domestic Violence?” Forestry Report R8-FS 56. Human-Environment Research Laboratory Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign. January 1996. http://www.urbanforestrysouth.org/pubs/tech_bulletin/tb4.htm


Florida, Richard. “The Rise of the Creative Class”. Washington Monthly. May 2002. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/0205.florida.html

Lynn, William S. The Ethics of Social Marketing for Conservation: A Learning Module. RARE Training Manual. London: RARE. 2001.  http://www.rmportal.net/library/content/tools/biodiversity-conservation-tools/putting-conservation-in-context-cd/communication-and-education-approaches-resourses/The-Ethics-of-Social-Marketing-for-Conservation-A-Learning-Module/view

Winter, Patricia L., Sagarin, B. J., Rhoads, K., Barrett, D. W., and Cialdini, R. B. Choosing to Encourage or Discourage: Perceived Effectiveness of Prescriptive Versus Proscriptive Messages. Environmental Management. Vol. 26, No. 6. pp. 589-594. December 2000.

Winter, Patricia L., Cialdini, R. B., Sagarin, B. J.  An Analysis of Normative Messages in Signs at Recreation Areas. Journal of Interpretation Research.  Vol. 3, No. 1. pp. 39-47. Winter 1998.

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Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems: http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/

Source for statistics on Southern Forests: www.srs.fs.usda.gov

National Biological Information Infrastructure: www.nbii.gov/portal/server.pt

National Wetlands Inventory: www.fws.gov/nwi


Green Infrastructure Center: Case Studies in Virginia

Canadian U.S. Bioregion Plan: www.2c1forest.org

The Conservation Fund Green Infrastructure Network: www.greeninfrastructure.net/what_we_do

Florida Ecological Network Program (1995): www.geoplan.ufl.edu/projects/greenways/greenwayindex.html

Green Infrastructure Center: www.gicinc.org/projects.htm

Greenprint for King County, WA (March 2005): dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/greenprint

Maryland GreenPrint Program (2001): www.dnr.state.md.us/greenways/greenprint

Kinston/Lenoir County, NC Green Infrastructure Plan (2002): www.greeninfrastructure.net/kinston-lenoir_county_profile

Mountains to Sound Project (Puget Sound, WA, 2005): www.mtsgreenway.org/about/index_html

Massachusetts Biomap Project (2001): www.mass.gov/dfwele/dfw/nhesp/nhbiomap.htm

Metro Greenways Project (Twin Cities, MN, 1997): www.dnr.state.mn.us/greenways/index.html

Natural Connections, Green Infrastructure in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana (2000): www.greenmapping.org

Pima County Multi-Species Restoration Plan (Pima County, AZ, 2006) http://rfcd.pima.gov/wrd/sdcp.htm

Prince Georges County, MD Countywide Green Infrastructure Plan (2005): www.pgplanning.org/Projects/Ongoing_Plans_and_Projects/Environmental/Green_Infrastructure

Saginaw Greenways Initiative Report (Saginaw Bay, MI, 2000): www.msu.edu/~jaroszjo/greenway/main.htm

Thomas Jefferson Planning Commission District Green Infrastructure Study: http://www.tjpdc.org/pdf/Environment/Green Infrastructure Report 12-22-09.pdf

Trust for Public Lands Building Green Infrastructure Report: www.tpl.org/tier3_cdl.cfm?content_item_id=915&folder_id=745

Virginia-Specific Examples

Benedict, Mark A., Allen, Will, and McMahon, Edward T. Advancing Strategic Conservation in the Commonwealth of Virginia: Using a Green Infrastructure Approach to Conserving and Managing the Commonwealth’s Natural Areas, Working Landscapes, Open Space, and Other Critical Resources. Washington, D.C., The Conservation Fund. 2004. Online at: www.greeninfrastructure.net/virginia

Conservation Lands Database: www.dcr.virginia.gov/land_conservation/tools02a.shtml

Green Infrastructure: Protecting our Commonwealth: http://www.youtube.com/dcrvirginia#p/u/2/fb7HLYPwJ4I

Hampton Roads Planning District Commission: Green Infrastructure Planning:

New River Valley Planning District Commission (NRVPDC) Green Infrastructure Initiative:

Virginia Conservation Lands Needs Assessment: www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/vclna.shtml.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, guidance for landowners on creating and maintaining wildlife habitat: http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/habitat/

Virginia Natural Heritage Program: National Heritage Resources Database: www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/nhrinfo.shtml


Tree Canopy Goals and Analysis:

i-Tree is a state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed public domain software from the USDA Forest Service that provides urban forestry analysis and benefit assessment tools. The i-Tree Tools help communities strengthen their urban forest management and advocacy efforts by quantifying the structure of community trees and the environmental services that trees provide. http://www.itreetools.org/


Developed as part of the Virginia Department of Forestry’s InFOREST tool, this nutrient and sediment runoff calculator allows users to evaluate water pollution impacts from changes in land cover and to model scenarios for reducing those pollutants. Click here to download a case study about applications of the tool and to link to it on line.

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